Uzbekistan is located in the central part of Central Asia. It is bordered by Kyrgyzstan to the east, by Kazakhstan to the north-east, north and north-west, by Turkmenistan to the south-west and south, by Afghanistan to the south and by Tajikistan to the south-east. The total length of the borders is about 5,300 km. The northernmost boundary of Uzbekistan is located in the north-east Ustyurt plateau (45° 36' N), the southernmost boundary is near Termez city on the Amu Darya banks (37° 11' N), the westernmost boundary is on the Ustyurt plateau (56° E), and the easternmost boundary is in the east Fergana valley (73° 10' E).

The official name of the country: Republic of Uzbekistan
Capital: Tashkent
 447.4 thous. km2.
Political system:
 Constitutional Democracy
 32.1 million people (2017)
Working-age population: 
60.5% of total population (2017)
Median age: 
28.5 years (2017)
Official language:
  Uzbek language
 Mirziyoev Shavkat Miromonovich
Uzbek soum
 Time zone:
 GMT +5
Phone code:
cc TLD:
220 V, 50 Hz

Ethnic composition

Uzbekistan is a multiethnic country. The majority of the population are Uzbeks (over 71%). Anthropologically these are mixed-origin people. Uzbeks are the representatives of southern European ethnicity of Central Asian Mesopotamia. However, their ethnic formation was heavily influenced by Mongoloid race.

Literary Uzbek language belongs to the Karluk group of the Western branch of the Turkic languages. Spoken language has many different dialects. The Uzbek language has its profound historical link to the Tajik language, which can be observed in phonetics, syntax and especially in vocabulary.

The official language of the Republic of Uzbekistan is Uzbek. Many people in the republic widely use Russian language, and many regions use Tajik language.

Representatives of other Turkic-speaking people also live in Uzbekistan: Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Turkmens, Uighurs and Tatars. Besides there is a large community of Tajiks in the republic, who speak the Iranian language (4.7 per cent). Russian and Russian-speaking people, the total number of which is about 16% of the total population of the republic, constitute a significant part of the population. Koreans, Arabs, Central Asian Gypsies and Jews, Germans and many others also live here. The population of Uzbekistan is growing rapidly.


The climate in Uzbekistan is continental, with hot summers and cool winters. The southern part of the country is the warmest and the northern part is the coldest. In summer temperature often exceeds 41°C (106°F), and can even reach 45°C (113°F) and above. Air humidity is not high. In winter temperature averages around -8°C (18°F), but can fall to -40°C (-40°F). Most of the country is also quite dry. Average annual precipitation range from 100 mm (3.9 in.) to 200 mm (7.9 in.) and mostly occur in winter and spring.


Uzbekistan — on 31 August 1991, at the Extraordinary Session of the Supreme Council of the Uzbek SSR in Tashkent city the Decision on the Declaration of State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Law on the Principles of State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan was adopted. The Uzbek SSR was also renamed to the Republic of Uzbekistan according to the Decision. The President is the head of state and the Chief Executive. The Parliament — the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis) has a legislative power.

Financial center is in Tashkent city, which is the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is located in the north-east of the republic, in the middle part of Chirchik-Angren oasis. This is one of the oldest cities in Central Asia.  Its history could be traced back more than 2,000 years. In different periods it was called Chach, Shash, Bin-ket.

Largest regions (population): Samarkand region (3.6 million), Fergana region (3.5 million), Kashkadarya region (3 million), Andijan region (3 million), Tashkent city (2.4 million)

GDP: 249,136.4 billion UZS (2017)

GDP per capita: 7,692 thousand UZS (2017)

Export value: 13.8 billion USD (2017)

Import value: 14.7 billion USD (2017)

Number of tourists: 200 thousand (2017) 2.8 million (2017)

Foreign direct investments: 17,147 billion UZS (2017)

Number of companies with foreign capital: 7,144 (as of October 1, 2018.)

Inflation rate: 16% (2018)

Main export markets: China – 1.68 billion, Russia – 1.58 billion, Switzerland – 3.48 billion, Korea, Turkey

Main sources of imports: China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Turkey, Germany

Trade agreements: Free trade agreement with CIS countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Russian Federation, Ukraine)

Public holidays

January 1 — New Year

March 8 — International Women's Day

March 21 — Navruz

May 9 — Day of Remembrance and Honor

September 1 — Independence Day

October 1 — Teacher and Mentor Day

December 8 — Constitution Day

the first days of Ruza Hayit and Kurban Hayit religious holidays.